Cross River National Park
Cross River, Nigeria
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The Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) is a subspecies of the western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). It was named a new species in 1904 by Paul Matschie, a mammalian taxonomist working at the Humboldt University Zoological Museum in Berlin, but was not systematically surveyed of its populations until 1987. (Gorilla gorlla diehli) is the most western and northern form of gorilla, and is restricted to the forested hills and mountains of the Cameroon-Nigeria border region at the headwaters of the Cross River. It is separated by about 300 km from the nearest population of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and by around 250 km from the gorilla population in the Ebo Forest of Cameroon. The most recent surveys suggest that between 200 and 300 Cross River gorillas remain. Groups of these gorillas concentrate their activities in 11 localities across a 12,000 km² range, though recent field surveys confirmed the presence of gorillas outside of their known localities suggesting a wider distribution within this range. This distribution is supported by genetic research, which has found evidence that many Cross River gorilla localities continue to maintain contact through the occasional dispersal of individuals. In 2009, the Cross River gorilla was finally captured on professional video on a forested mountain in Cameroon.
The morphological distinctiveness of the Cross River Gorilla was first recognized in 1987. Subsequent analyses of cranial and tooth morphology lent support to the distinctiveness of the Cross River gorilla and the gorilla was described as a distinct subspecies in 2000.
When comparing the Cross River gorilla to western gorillas, they have noticeably smaller palates, smaller cranial vaults, and shorter skulls. The Cross River gorilla does not differ much in terms of body size or limb and bone length from western gorillas. However, measurements taken from a male suggest that they have shorter hands and feet and have a larger opposability index than western gorillas. They have bananas bananas Also their butt stands out
In 2000 Esteban E. Sarmiento and John F. Oates proposed and supported the hypothesis that the Cross River gorilla began to evolve into a distinguished subspecies of the G.g. Gorilla(Gorilla gorilla Gorilla) during an arid period of the African Pleistocene phase in response to declining food sources and a greater emphasis on herbivory and terrestrial behaviors.
The team stated that ancestors to the Cross river gorilla may have been secluded to the forests near the cross river headwaters and/or elsewhere in the Cameroon highlands. They wrote that the Cross River gorillas may not have spread much since their isolation. The Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla ancestors differentiated from the Cross river gorilla by spreading beyond this area somewhere to the south and/or east of the Sanaga. Sarmiento and Oates stated that there is no evidence to suggest that the G. g. Gorilla and the G. g. Diehli are sympatric.
The Cross River gorilla, like many other gorilla species, prefer a dense forest habitat that is uninhabited by humans. Due to the Cross River gorilla’s body size they require large and diverse areas of the forest to meet their habitat requirements. Similar to most endangered primates, their natural habitat exists where humans are often occupying and using for natural resources. Forests that are inhabited by the Cross River gorilla vary in altitude from approximately 100m to 2,037m above sea level. Between 1996 and 1999, Field work was conducted on Afi Mountain in Cross River State, Nigeria for a period of 32 months. A great deal of data were collected, and what was very significant about the date collected included several things such as habitat types and topography mapped using line transects, climate, spatial and temporal availability of tree and herb foods and also the Cross-River Gorilla's wide range behavior, diet, and its grouping patterns. These data were all assessed from indirect evidence, such as feeding trails, nests, and feces.
The habitats of the cross river gorilla are negatively affected by the drastic deforestation and fragmentation of the land. These unfortunate events leave the gorilla species with few options for survival. As a result of deforestation and fragmentation, there are drastic reductions in carrying capacity, in other words, the size of the territories these animals inhabit has been significantly reduced. Because the population of humans living in this area is high, the amount of resources available to the cross river gorillas’ is limited. Even though this decrease in the availability of land may appear to be a problem, research studies have found that an adequate amount of rainforest still remains that is suitable and comfortable for this species. If, however, human pressures and activities towards deforestation continue, these territories will continue to diminish and ultimately will not exist. Additional examples of human activity that threaten cross river gorillas and, of course, other species, are hunting, logging, agriculture, fuel wood harvesting, clearance of lands for plantation and exploitation of natural resources. Gorillas and other primates are only a small part of the larger ecosystem and thus, they rely on many aspects of their habitat for survival. Furthermore, also because of their body size, they lack ability to adapt to new environment and they have a rather slow reproductive rate. Even though there is somewhat of a limited research on cross river gorillas, there is enough to conclude that these animals are currently able to sustain survival. What is still under debate is the total number of cross river gorillas that exist.
The Cross River gorilla is not only a critically endangered species, as labeled by the IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, but is under studied. The limited territories of their natural wildlife has led to that Cross River Gorillas are approximately 200 kilometers away from other gorilla populations. This region is around the Nigeria-Cameroon border in which there are highland areas creating geographic restrictions for these gorillas. Most of the habit regions for cross river gorillas are legally protected due to their critically endangered status. However, there are still areas that are not like between the Kagwene Mountain and Upper Mbulu, and around Mone North.
A study published in 2007 in the American Journal of Primatology announced the discovery of the subspecies fighting back against possible threats from humans. They "found several instances of gorillas throwing sticks and clumps of grass". This is unusual. When encountered by humans, gorillas usually flee and rarely charge.
Cross River Gorillas have certain nesting behaviors (i.e. mean nest group size, style of the nest, location of the nest, and nest reuse patterns) that depend on things such as their current habitat, climate, food source availability and risk of attack or vulnerability. According to research done on the Cross River Gorillas living in the Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary, there is a high correlation between whether a nest is constructed on the ground or in a tree and the season. From April up until November, Cross River Gorillas are more likely to build their nests within a tree, and from November on they are more likely to build it on the ground. Overall, it was found that more nests built at night were built on the ground as opposed to in trees. This species is also more likely to construct nests during the wet season than the dry season, as well as construct more arboreal nests in the wet season. It was found that day nest construction was more common, especially in the wet season. Reuse of nesting sites was also found to be common, although it did not have any relation to the season. And, their mean nest group size is from four to seven individuals. Although, nest group size varies depending on the location of the species.
The groups of cross river gorillas consist mainly of one male and six to seven females plus their offspring. Gorillas in lowlands are seen to have less offspring than those in the highlands. This is thought to be because of the hunting rate in the lowlands and infant mortality rate. The groups in the highlands are densely populated compared to those in the lowlands.
The cross river gorilla's diet consists largely of fruit, herbaceous vegetation, liana, and tree bark. Much like their nesting habits, what they eat is contingent on the season. Observations of the gorilla indicate that it seems to prefer fruit, but will settle for other sources of nutrition during the dry season of about 4-5 months in northern regions.Cross River Gorillas eat more liana and tree bark throughout the year, and less fruit during dry periods of scarcity.
This subspecies is populated at the border between Nigeria and Cameroon, in both tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests which are also home to the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, another subspecies of great ape. The Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) is the most western and northern form of gorilla, and is restricted to the forested hills and mountains of the Cameroon-Nigeria border region at the headwaters of the Cross River. . It is separated by about 300 km from the nearest population of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and by around 250 km from the gorilla population in the Ebo Forest of Cameroon. Groups of these gorillas concentrate their activities in 11 localities across a 12,000 km² range, though recent field surveys confirmed the presence of gorillas outside of their known localities suggesting a wider distribution within this range. This distribution is corroborated by genetic research, which has found evidence that many Cross River gorilla localities continue to maintain contact through the occasional dispersal of individuals. The occurrence of Cross River gorillas has been confirmed in the Mbe Mountains and the Forest Reserves of Afi River, Boshi Extension, and Okwanggo of Nigeria’s Cross River State, and in the Takamanda and Mone River Forest Reserves, and the Mbulu Forest, of the Cameroon’s South West Province. Cross river gorillas have been known to cling to the Afi-to-Kagwene landscape because of its rugged terrain and high altitude which keeps it secluded from human interference. However, a study conducted in 2013 found that cross river gorillas also inhabit areas lower in altitude such as the Mawambi Hills. This site is about 552 miles above sea level, which is much lower than their average niche at about 776 miles above sea level.
The population of Cross River gorillas declined by 59% between the years 1995 and 2010, a greater decline over that period than any other subspecies of great ape. Apes such as the Cross River gorilla serve as indicators of problems in their environment and also help other species survive. The decline of this species started thirty years ago and has since continued to decline at an alarming rate. The danger of hunters has lead these creatures to fear humans and human contact, so sightings of the Cross River gorilla are rare.
Cross River gorillas try to avoid nesting in grasslands and farms, which causes the remaining forest to become fragmented.However, the Cross River gorilla's habitat has become degraded and fragmented. Spatial scale coarse models fail to explain why the gorillas display a highly fragmented distribution within what appears to be a large, continuous area of suitable habitat. When fragmentation occurs, this causes a decrease or even elimination of migration between sub-populations, and therefore causes more inbreeding within a single population. This led to the loss of genetic diversity. This has negative effects on the long-term viability of population fragments, and by extension, the population as whole. Researchers use genetic methods to better understand the Cross River gorilla population. more specifically, certain loci within the genome were of major concern and they helped give the best insight into the subdivisions and dispersal of genetic variation across populations. Surveys suggest that the total population is about 300 individuals and is fragmented across about ten localities with limited reproductive contact. On top of this fragmentation, the Cross River gorilla is also threatened by hunting for bushmeat and for use of their bones for medical purposes. For example, the exploitation of some primate species in Africa is prohibited because certain local communities embellished them with ritual meanings, and sometimes regarded them as totems, and also used them as tests for medicine.
Another threat to the Cross River gorilla is the harmful gorilla pet trade. To date, there is only one recorded Cross River gorilla in captivity, held at the Limbe Wildlife Center. Although is seems like a small number amount of gorillas in captivity, the pet trade has posed a large threat to other species of gorillas in the past, and will likely endanger the Cross River gorilla. Since baby gorillas make preferable pets, hunters will often kill the adults protecting the baby.
The Cross River gorilla is critically endangered due to the combined threat of hunters and infection with ebola. Even if the rate of ebola mortality along with hunting the promise of these gorillas making a fast recovery is virtually non-existent.[vague] The reproduction rate of the Cross River gorilla is low and is estimated to take 75 years to fully recover the population. They are also threatened by loss of habitat due to mining, agriculture, and timber usage.
While all western gorillas are Critically Endangered (in the case of the western lowland gorilla due in part to Ebola virus), the Cross River gorilla is the most endangered of the African apes. It is one of the world's 25 most endangered primates according to the IUCN Primate Specialist Group. In the efforts to conserve other species, it has already been obvious to bring the scattered population together to prevent inbreeding. One problem with the scattered populations is that the Cross River gorillas are also surrounded by human populations that cause threats such as bushmeat hunting and habitat loss. Also, the protected regions causing the Cross River gorillas by the Nigeria-Cameroon border are close by to hunting regions causing the Cross River gorilla to have a more likely chance to go extinct. The Cross River gorilla is especially significant to the ecosystem because they are excellent seed dispersers for certain tropical plant species that would otherwise be extinct.
In 2007, a survey was conducted in 5 villages in the aim of assessing taboos against hunting and eating these endangered species. In the Lebialem division in Cameroon, Africa, 86% of the people agreed for the conservation of these species because of the fact that they were important counterparts to humans morphologically and that if those species died, then human totemic counterparts die with them as well. A reason for the decline of cross-river gorillas was also believed to be due to the decline of adhering to these totemic practices among younger people that range from 18 to 25 years. Regardless, this taboo is still in place and it still strongly discourages hunting those endangered species. These totemic traditions are believed to be critical for their continuous survival and culture and are of significant importance to the endangered species' lives since no real law enforcement exists because of the lack in government. Continuous revival of those beliefs and practices to reinforce the conservation of these species is critical for their continuous survival, which could also foster further support from different communities. It is necessary to conserve the Cross River gorilla in order to save the African villages' culture. However, care must be taken when selecting these practices as some could encourage their killing. Largely because of many taboos, in the past 15 years, there has not been any Cross-River Gorilla hunting incidents. The presence of taboo prohibiting oppression has been considered an extremely successful local conservation strategy.
A workshop for the conservation of the Cross River Gorilla was organized by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Nigerian Conservation Foundation was held in Nigeria in April 2001. The overall goal of the workshop was to enhance the species’ chance for survival because of its rare and distinct features from other western gorillas. The most important outcomes of the workshop were a list of improvements recommended to save the species and also establishing the need for regular meetings between the governments and conservation groups of Cameroon and Nigeria to achieve maximum efficiency in their conservation efforts.
In 2008, the government of Cameroon created the Takamanda National Park on the border of Nigeria and Cameroon has an attempt to protect these gorillas. The park now forms part of an important trans-boundary protected area with Nigeria’s Cross River National Park, safeguarding an estimated 115 gorillas—a third of the Cross River gorilla population—along with other rare species. The hope is that the gorillas should be able to move between the Takamanda reserve in Cameroon over the border to Nigeria's Cross River National Park. The Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary was created be the Cameroonian government in 2008 as part of the IUCN’s cross river gorilla action plan. It consists of a 19.44 m protected area of land. It is located between the forests of Mbulu and Nijikwa in Western Cameroon. It consists of rugged, mountainous terrain and is at the highest altitudinal extent within the Cross River Gorilla distribution. The highest point at the Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary is 2,037 meters high. The Kagwene Sanctuary could improve its effectiveness on preserving the Cross River Gorilla species, seeing as only about half of its land is a prime gorilla habitat. The Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary was awarded sanctuary status on April 3, 2008 and as a result will be provided with a Conservator and Eco-guards to enforce the wildlife laws within the perimeters of the sanctuary.
Protected Area updated by Nigerian Conservation Foundation, Nigeria, facilitated by UNEP-WCMC
about 2 years ago
The Cross River National Park is a national park of Nigeria, located in Cross River State, Nigeria. There are two separate sections, Okwangwo (established 1991) and Oban (established 1988). The park has a total area of about 4,000 km2, most of which consists of primary moist tropical rainforests in the North and Central parts, with mangrove swamps on the coastal zones. Parts of the park belong ...
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