Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve Wetland of International Importance (Ramsar Convention)
Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China
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Khanka Lake (Russian: о́зеро Ха́нка; simplified Chinese: 兴凯湖; traditional Chinese: 興凱湖; pinyin: Xīngkǎi Hú), is a transboundary freshwater body located on the border between Primorsky Krai, Russia and Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (at 45°0′N 132°25′E / 45°N 132.417°E / 45; 132.417). At its closest point, it is situated 79 kilometres (49 mi) east of the city of Jixi, Heilongjiang. The area of the lake is 4,190 square kilometres (1,620 sq mi), of which 3,030 km2 (1,170 sq mi) (72 %) is located in Russia and 1,160 km2 (450 sq mi) (28 %) in China.
Khanka Lake is the name given to two lakes separated by a 10 metres (33 ft) sandy hill. Lake shores are swampy, except in the north-west. The lake's drainage basin is an alluvial plain of around 16,890 square kilometres (6,520 sq mi), of which 97% is in Russian territory. With 4,000 to 4,400 km2 (1,500 to 1,700 sq mi) of water surface area, it is the largest water body of Northeast China. It is fed by 23 rivers (8 in China and 15 in Russia), but the only outflow of the lake is the Songacha River. The lake's average depth is 4.5 metres (15 ft), while its maximum depth is 10.6 m (35 ft). Its average volume is 18.3 cubic kilometres (4.4 cu mi), though it can fill up to 22.6 km3 (5.4 cu mi). The lake belongs to the Ussuri River System, which is part of Amur River System. The maximum monthly mean temperature is 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) (July), while the minimum monthly mean temperature is −19.2 °C (−2.6 °F). Rainfall mainly occurs in summer, reaching 750 millimetres (30 in) annually. The residence time of Khanka Lake is one year.
The area around the lake is an important wetland habitat and forms a National Nature Reserve on the Chinese side and the Khanka Lake Nature Reserve on the Russian side. It is a remarkable site for nature protection, eco-tourism as well as scientific research (concerning bird migrations). The rare Lesser White-fronted Goose makes its home upon this lake. The part of the lake in China is managed by the People's Republic of China Government and is exploited by collective farms for fishery, agriculture and livestock raising.
In the Neolithic era, there was a well-developed Bohai culture in the area of the Khanka Lake.
The National Geographic Channel represented the film named "Secret Forest" as the part of the cycle "Wild Russia" which describes the nature reserves of Ussuri Krai, including Khanka Lake wildlife.
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