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The Buxa Tiger Reserve (Pron: ˈbʌksə) is a 760-square-kilometre (290 sq mi) tiger reserve located inside the Buxa National Park (Bengali: বক্সা জাতীয় উদ্যান Bôksha Jatio Uddan) in West Bengal, India, in the Buxa hills of the southern hilly area of Bhutan. Animals found in the park include, the tiger, civet, and red jungle fowl.
Buxa Tiger Reserve (BTR) lies in Alipurduar Sub Division of Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. Its northern boundary runs along the international border with Bhutan. The Sinchula hill range lies all along the northern side of BTR and the Eastern boundary touches that of the Assam State. National Highway No.31 C roughly runs along its southern boundary. It is the eastern most extension of extreme bio-diverse North-East India & represents highly endemic Indo-Malayan region. The fragile "Terai Eco-System" constitutes a part of this Reserve. The Phipsu Wildlife Sanctuary of Bhutan is contiguous to North of BTR. Manas National Park lies on east of BTR. BTR, thus, serves as international corridor for Asian Elephant migration between India and Bhutan. To the south-west, the Chilapata Forests form an elephant corridor to the Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary. The reserve encompasses as many as eight forest types. The Divisional Head Quarter is located at Alipurduar. The Forest is divided into two division, i.e. East & West. The Himalayan Griffon, Beautiful Nutuch, four different varieties of Hornbill & the Red B rested Himalayan Partridge are the important Birds in this Reserve. Among the wild animals, Clouded Leopard, Tiger, Wild Dog, Pangolin, Himalayan Black Bear are rare. Buxa Fort is an important landmark for this Reserve. This fort was captured by the British-India in 1865 after the Dooars War from Bhutan. Later this fort was used as Detention Camp for the Indian Freedom fighters during the Indian Freedom movement.
Buxa Tiger Reserve created in 1983 as the 15th tiger reserve. In 1986, Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary was constituted over 314.52 km² of the Reserve forests. In the year 1991, 54.47 km² area was added to Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary. A year later, in 1992, Government of West Bengal declared its intentions to constitute a National Park over 117.10 km² of the Buxa Wildlife Sanctuary. State Government finally declared National Park vide notification No.3403-For/11B-6/95 dt. 05.12.1997.
The historic Buxa Fort (2,600 feet or 790 metres above m.s.l.). People have sentimental attachment with the fort on accounts of its association with the struggle for freedom. Once Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was confined inside the fort. A sacred temple – Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga - lies in BTR. Around 10,000 devotees of Lord Shiva congregate here on "Shiva Chouturdoshi".
More than 400 species of trees, 250 species of shrubs, 400 species of herbs, 9 species of cane, 10 species of bamboo, 150 species of orchids, 100 species of grass and 130 species of aquatic flora including more than 70 sedges (Cyperaceae) have been identified so far. There are more than 160 species of other monocotyledons and ferns. The main species constitutes trees like Sal, Champa, Gamar, Simul, Chikrasi.
The main species include Asian Elephant, Tiger, Gaur, Wild boar, Sambar .
In the Reserve more than 284 species of birds, 73 species of mammals, 76 species of snakes, 5 species of amphibians have been identified so far. In a recent survey (2006) it has been found that Buxa Tiger Reserve has the highest number of fish species in the North Bengal region. Apart from tigers animals like Elephants, bears, civets, giant squirrel, Gaur, Chital, clouded leopard, wild Buffalo, antelope and snakes including the Regal Python are found here.
About 230 species of birds and innumerable butterflies add colour to the forest. The rivers of Raidak and Jayanti which flow through the forest and the Narathali lake are home to migratory birds as well as endemic ones which abound the place. The Hornbills including Greater Pied Hornbill, Ibisbill, Migratory Goosander, Red-stars, Wagtails, the rare black necked crane, migratory common teal, black stork, Large Whistling Teal, Minivets, White Eyed Poachared are some of the bird species sighted here. Two new species of frog have been discovered in the park in the year 2006.
Some of the endangered species found in BTR are Indian Tiger, Asian Elephant, Leopard cat, Bengal Florican, Regal Python, Chinese Pangolin, Hispid hare,Hog deer Lesser Adjutant "Leptoptilos javanicus", White-rumped Vulture "Gyps bengalensis", Slender-billed Vulture "Gyps tenuirostris", Chestnut-breasted Partridge "Arborophila mandellii", Rufous necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis "Ferruginous", Pochard "Aythya nyroca" and Great Hornbill "Buceros bicornis".
Indian Cabbage White at Buxa Tiger Reserve
Red Junglefowl at Buxa Tiger Reserve
Blue Rock Thrush,Buxa Tiger Reserve
Verditer Flycatcher at Buxa Tiger Reserve
Hoary-bellied Squirrel at Buxa Tiger Reserve
Bamboo Treebrown at Buxa Tiger Reserve
Buxa (2,600 ft) is a One hour fifteen minutes (3.9 km) trek through picturesque surroundings from Santrabari, the starting point. The Historical Buxa Fort was coming under the British India after the 2nd Dooars War (1865) between the Bhutan and the British,the subsidiary alliance of Princely state Cooch Behar. This was used as a Detention Camp by the British, because of its remoteness during the Indian Freedom Movement. Many freedom fighters were imprisoned here. After independence, it served as a refugee camp for Tibetans and Bangladeshis. There is a 4 km further trek to Rovers' Point (the land of beautiful birds at 4,500 ft or 1,400 m) or a 14 km trek to Roopam Valley or Rupang Valley bordering Bhutan. From Buxa, one can also take the 13 km trek to Jainti through the dense jungle preferably with an Expert Guide (subjected to get permission from B.T.R.). There is a stalactite cave, popularly known as the Mahakal cave at Jainti. Another entry point Rajabhatkhawa (17 km from Alipurduar) has an orchidarium, and a Nature Interpretation Center. One can go for a Circular Trekking from Buxaduar via Chunabhati-Adma to Raimatung. This is actually 8 hours tough trek with an expert guide but usually trekkers prefer to make it as 3days comfortable Trek to understand Nature & the Ethnic Culture of this region. Local tour Operators at Alipurduar provides tent & other materials to the Trekkers.
One can have a park safari by car or jeep by taking permission from the Forest Office at Rajabhatkhawa or at Jayanti.
You can trek to “Pukri Mai”, a small sacred pond (Karts Lake) situated inside the park where fishes like Magur and Singi and Turtles are kept. Festivals are held at certain time of the year by both Buddhist and Hindus and local ethnic groups like Dukpas. 'Dukpa: the Word probably comes from Drukpa, the people from the land of Thunder storm. They are the ancient Ethnic group among the other inhabitants of Buxa Tiger Reserve. Dukpas used live in the different Hamlets of Buxa Hills from east to west. The seasonal migratory Dukpas are divided mainly into 30 different sects. They originally were the followers of (Drukpa Kagyud) Mahayani Buddhism. Some of them are converted into Christianity. A Finnish Church is still exists along with the age old Buddhist Gumba at Chunabhati. A Grave yard with Tomb stone at Sadar Bazar bears the testimony of Britishers.
Though Forest Authority still not interested in tourism but sometimes they allowed visitor to stay in their Inspection Bungalows. There are Forest I.B. at Buxa Duar, Jainti, Raimatung, South Ridak, Kumargram (Barobisha)and Nimati Rbeat/Range areas. The Beautiful Bungalow at Bhutanghat is destroyed. South Raidak Bungalow is renovated & become Heritage Rest House. A 16 bedded Dormitory is still exists at Buxaduar & Jainti. There are Forest rest houses of West Bengal Forest Development Corporation at Rajabhatkhawa only. Jainti at the banks of the river Jainti nestled between mountains and thick forests. Other than Forest Lodges presently some home stay Accommodations are available at Jainti, Raimatung and Buxaduar. In Buxaduar Dukpas Huts (Dwelling houses) are used to stay for the Trekkers. at Rajabhatkhawa some Forest dwellers houses are converted into lodges. A concern named after the Sinchula Range is trying to developing a concept of Home Tourism in these areas along with the Forest Villagers.
Nearest Airport: Bagdogra – 195 km away Nearest Rail Station: Alipurduar Junction / New Alipurduar – 17 km Nearest Town/ City: Alipurduar – 17 km By Road: NH 31 is the main highway. One can hire a car from Alipurduar.
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